Social and Psychological Foundations

 

The outcomes that follow address social and psychological foundations of education. In constructing the outcomes, indicators, and assessments proposed here, material from the following documents was incorporated:

Knowledge, skills, and dispositions that are foundations of the profession of teaching are infused throughout the documents named above. NCATE standards are the organizing framework, and ACEI Program standards are the outcomes. The indicators, assessment types, and sample assessment tasks have been constructed to be foundational.

In constructing the material contained here, the following assumptions were made:

  1. Knowledge and understanding of ALL concepts related to the foundations of teaching must be introduced during the first two years of a four-year program leading to teacher certification. Though in many cases students' ability to work with these concepts will be rudimentary, it is incumbent on faculty to introduce foundation material early and to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate proficiency before they enter formal candidacy for teacher certification. The level of knowledge and understanding required and the demand for application of that knowledge and understanding will distinguish pre-professional from professional courses.
  2. Many knowledge bases and foundational skills are prerequisites for competent demonstration of the knowledge and understanding identified as foundational to the profession of teaching. While these prerequisites will be fulfilled in students' general education curricula, teacher educators shall demonstrate to the education community and to the public that prerequisite performance standards are met by persons recommended for candidacy for teacher education programs.
  3. Knowledge and understanding foundational to the profession of teaching will be addressed in students' general education curricula and appropriate introductory teacher education courses. Teacher education programs may find a variety of academic and experiential configurations that convey and test the outcomes delineated here.
  4. Though many modes of instruction are possible, one is essential. Teacher candidates must be given early, sequential exposure to the practice of teaching. Fieldwork shall begin as early as involvement in education courses begins and will be an ongoing and progressively demanding part of aspiring teachers' course of study.

Standard 1: Development, learning, and motivation--Candidates know, understand, and use the major concepts, principles, theories, and research related to development of children and young adolescents to construct learning opportunities that support individual students' development, acquisition of knowledge, and motivation.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Types

Sample Assessment Tasks

1.Teacher candidates will know and understand the social, physical, emotional, and cognitive stages of development from infancy through adolescence.

 

a. Identify indicators of development through observation.

b. Recognize developmental level of child based on observing child behavior, and recognize importance of this issue in curriculum and instructional materials.

 

 

!Restricted response questions

!Extended response questions

 

 

!Written journal

!Oral presentation

!Case study/ simulation

 

Fieldwork:

!Guided observations

!Journals

!Research paper

 

! Complete a case study of a student.

! Explain Piaget's stages of development

! Explain Erickson's stages of development.

! Discuss child development as it relates to curriculum and materials

2.Teacher candidates will know the major approaches to (theories of) human learning.

c. Identify and explain the major components of the major approaches to learning.

 

! Compare and contrast Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories

! Identify and explain use of Skinner's principles in a classroom

3. Teacher candidates will reflect on the approaches to learning/teaching.

d. Write and speak on how learning occurs in students and in themselves

e. Recognize behaviors that enhance and impede learning

f. Recognize behaviors that indicate that learning has occurred.

 

! Describe how a discovery learning task appropriate for third graders differs from a task appropriate for eight graders.

4.Teacher candidates will understand the impact of culture, privilege, and oppression, as they influence personal growth and development.

g. Define and explain culture, privilege and oppression

h. Discuss how culture, privilege and oppression influence growth and development.

 

! Given a case study, explain how the needs of a child in one circumstance differ from the needs of a child in a different circumstance.

5. Teacher candidates will relate culture, privilege and oppression to their impact on schooling, student performance and success

i. Discuss culture, privilege and oppression in relation to schooling, student performance and success

!Participate in a cultural sensitivity exercise.

! Given an exercise or simulation, identify culturally sensitive behaviors and explain.

6. Teacher candidates will understand the important role of family in human development and the variety of ways individuals can organize to fulfill these roles.

j. Discuss the role of family in society.

k. Discuss how individuals fulfill family roles.

! Describe how siblings' behaviors in school may be manifestations of their roles at home.

7. Teacher candidates will understand basic theories of motivation.

l. Reflect on personal motivational patterns in relation to basic theories.

! Analyze a videotape of a motivational activity.

 

Standard 2a: Central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of content -- Candidates know, understand, and use the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of content for students across the K-8 grades and can create meaningful learning experiences that develop students competence in subject matter for various developmental level.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Types

Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will know what curriculum is and identify the social, cultural, historical, and philosophical influences that effect the development and change of curriculum.

a. Define curriculum

b. Explain the social, cultural, historical, and philosophical factors and how they influence curriculum

!Multiple choice tests

!Restricted response questions

!Extended response questions

!Web research

!Research papers

Fieldwork:

!Guided observations

!Journals

 

! Make a computer search of the definitions of curriculum. Order the definitions according to self-generated criteria.

2. Teacher candidates will understand the construction of curriculum as responsive to developmental, cultural, and social needs of children.

c. Construct appropriate objectives for given specific students.

d. Identify and explain the different domains of development

e. Write objectives specific to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains..

! Write an affective objective for a lesson on weather for third graders.

3. Teacher candidates will know that there are different approaches to and methods of teaching.

g. Identify approaches to teaching such as cooperative learning, direct instruction, etc.

! Explain methods used in a ninth grade language arts class.

4. Teacher candidates will recognize that there are different approaches to teaching and that materials and objectives are specific to the approach selected.

h. Identify the type of teaching being employed in a field experience

i. Identify materials that are specific to a particular approach.

! Identify and describe types of teaching strategies you observed.

5. Teacher candidates will be able to conduct basic educational research

j. Use tools of fundamental research

k. Engage in a research activity

 

 

! Design a study to be conducted during a class period.

 

6. Teacher candidates will recognize valid sources of educational information

7. Teacher candidates will know and understand the roles of elementary school teachers.

 

 

l. Discriminate among various educational sources.

m. Name and explain the roles of teachers

n. Identify and evaluate the appropriateness of those roles

 

 

 

 

 

!Multiple choice tests

!Restricted and Extended response questions

Fieldwork:

!Responses to guided observations

!Responses to case studies, simulations

 

 

 

 

! Explain what distinguishes a refereed journal from an educational newsletter

! Identify and discuss the roles of the teacher that you observed.

Standard 2i: Connections across the curriculum -- Candidates must know, understand, and use the connections among concepts, procedures, and applications from content areas to motivate elementary students, build understanding, and encourage the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and ideas to real world issues

Outcomes for this standard are either met in the second sixty hours of teacher preparation or are addressed under other standards.

 

Standard 3a: Integrating and applying knowledge for instruction -- Candidates plan and implement instruction based on knowledge of students, learning theory, subject matter, curricular goals and community.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Types

Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will reflect on the approaches to learning/teaching

a. Recognize how learning occurs in students and in themselves.

b. Identify behaviors of students and of professionals, which enhance learning and impede learning.

c. Identify behaviors that indicate that learning has occurred and justify behaviors identified.

!Check lists

!Role playing

!Restricted response questions

!Extended response questions

Field Work

!Guided observation

!Journals

! Candidates will role play behaviors that enhance and impede learning

2. Teacher candidates will relate principles and practices of group dynamics to educational practices

d. Name and explain major principles and practices used in group dynamics

e. Recognize similarities and differences in uses of group dynamic principles and practices to those of educational principles and practices

f. Demonstrate use of group dynamics principles.

 

! Identify and explain appropriate uses of homogeneous and heterogeneous groups.

! Role play appropriate teacher response to students who impede group progress.

3. Teacher candidates will possess knowledge of exceptionalities and individual differences and understand how culture and experience affect these.

g. Name major categories of exceptionalities (special needs) in learning- including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and special physical or mental challenges

h. Recognize the multiplicity of individual differences among students- including learning styles, strengths, needs, and worldview.

i. Recognize research and/or theories on how culture and experience affect responses to exceptionalities and individual differences among students

j. List current standardized instruments that determine exceptionalities and individual differences.

!Restricted response questions

!Extended response questions

!Multiple choice

tests

!Research reviews

!Class discussion

!Presentations

!Research papers

Field Work

! Guided observations

!Reflection papers

 

! Explain methods for assessment of an LEP student who exhibits behavior that is alternately aggressive and withdrawn

Some outcomes related to this standard are applicable to the second sixty hours of teacher preparation and some are addressed under other standards.

 

Standard 3b: Adaptation to diverse students -- Candidates understand how elementary students differ in their development and approaches to learning, and create instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse students.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Types

Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will specify how issues such as justice, social equality, concentrations of power, class differences, race and ethnic relations, language and literacy, or family and community organization relate to teaching and schools.

a. Define justice, social equality, etc.

b. Explain how class differences, race, and language impact learning

c. Describe accommodations teachers may make for differences in language and culture

!Analysis of case studies

!Discussion

!Role playing

!Debates

!Interviews

!Letters to the editor from a theorist

 

 

 

 

Fieldwork:

!observe in schools with contrasting philosophies or with student bodies with different societal challenges

!Extended constructed responses

!Reflective journals

! Interview of community member about their educational experiences.

2. Teacher candidates will identify contemporary education issues.

 

d. Explain educational issues portrayed in the media

! Write a letter to the editor of the Washington Post commenting on the recent education article and write from the perspective of a theorist discussed in this class.

3. Teacher candidates will related issues to their historical, social, cultural, philosophical, education antecedents or analyze the historical, social, cultural, philosophical, and educational antecedents in relation to contemporary issues.

e. Explain how Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, Skinner, and Bandura would react to a current issue in education.

 

Some outcomes related to this standard are applicable to the second sixty hours of teacher preparation and some are addressed under other standards.

 

Standard 3c: Development of critical thinking, problem solving and performance skills -- Candidates understand and use a variety of teaching strategies that encourage elementary students' development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will engage successfully in critical thinking and problem solving in a variety of content areas.

2. Teacher candidates will recognize instructional practices that enhance, or impede critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills.

a. Define, explain, give examples of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills

!Multiple choice tests

!Restricted /extended response questions

Fieldwork:

!Reports of guided observations

!Journals

!Devise five test questions in a content area (your choice) that require critical thinking, problem solving, and the demonstration of performance skills, and five questions which do not require these skills.

Some outcomes related to this standard are applicable to the second sixty hours of teacher preparation and some are addressed under other standards.

  

Standard 3d: Active engagement in learning -- Candidates use their knowledge and understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior among students K-8 to foster active engagement in learning, self motivation, and positive social interaction and to create supportive learning environments.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will engage in small group learning environments in a variety of content areas in the first sixty hours of coursework.

a. Reports of group work and products of group work.

!portfolio entries

!Evaluation form completed by various instructors.

 

 Standard 4a: Practices and behaviors developing career teachers -- Candidates understand and apply practices and behaviors that are characteristic of developing career teachers.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will know the alternative patterns of elementary school organization.

a. Identify types such as public/private, primary/intermediate, charter, magnet

b. Explain how schools are organized at micro level, i.e. principal, assistant principal, department head, etc.

!Multiple choice test

!Restricted and Extended response questions

!Role playing

!Graphic organizers

!Journal

!Log observations

!Report on guided observations

!Research paper

!Interview

!Case Studies

!Class discussions/

debates

Fieldwork:

!Teacher-mentor assessments

! Create two organizational charts for a school and compare them.

2. Teacher candidates will know the various school personnel who will be collaboratively involved in lesson construction.

c. Name the personnel who should collaborate in instructional design for students

d. Define the basic roles of these individuals

 

! Write a job description for various school personnel.

3. Teacher candidates will know the history of education.

e. Identify major figures in the history of education

f. Identify major events in the history of education

 

! Make a time line for American education.

4. Teacher candidates will begin developing a philosophy of education and relate this to purposes of education.

g. Write a detailed philosophy of education statement

 

! Take written philosophy statement to two teachers for feedback; reflect on the feedback.

5. Teacher candidates will understand schools as organizations.

h. Explain how schools are organized at the macro level, i.e., federal, state, and local/district

! Interview a corporate CEO and principal and note difference in perspective.

6. Teacher candidates will understand the important role of family in learning and will recognize teachers' vital role in creating a partnership with families.

i. Explain the influence of family on learning.

j. Articulate culturally competent strategies for involving families in enhancing student learning.

!Role play

!Class discussions

!Essay exams

!Research or reflection papers

Fieldwork:

!Guided observations

!Journals

!Interviews with teachers

! Role play parent-teacher conferences.

7. Teacher candidates will know fundamental/basic rudiments of school law.

k. Articulate laws that have shaped basic educational policy.

l. Reference outstanding cases of school law

 

! Re-enact the Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education case.

8. Teacher candidates will know, understand, and give reason for the ethical standards of the teaching profession.

m. Name and explain principles of ethics in teaching

n. Identify ethical and unethical teacher behaviors

o. Explain consequences of unethical teacher behaviors

 

! Role play a teacher/student discussion of cheating.

9. Teacher candidates will know and articulate the value of life-long learning

p. Discuss life-long learning and its effect on the quality of life

q. Identify and explain the value of action research

 

! Create a life-learning journal.

  

Standard 4b: Reflection and evaluation -- Candidates are aware of and reflect on their practice in light of research on teaching and resources available for professional learning; they continually evaluate the effects of their professional decisions and actions on students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community and actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidates will keep a "developmental portfolio" that will include reflections on their developing schema of the teaching profession.

a. portfolio

 

 

  

Standard 5c: Collaboration with families -- Candidates know the importance of establishing and maintaining a positive collaborative relationship with families to promote the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical growth of children.

Outcomes related to this standard are addressed under other standards.