Physical Education

 

The following outcomes are based upon the National Standards for Physical Education developed by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) and the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPRED). These standards expand the concept physical education set forth by the National Council for Accreditation for Teacher Education (NCATE).

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) Standard for Physical Education – Candidates know, understand, and use as appropriate to their own understanding and skills, human movement and physical activity as central elements to foster active, healthy, lifestyles and enhance the quality of life for elementary students.

 Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. -- The intent of this standard is the development of movement competent and proficiency. Movement competence implies the development of sufficient ability to enjoy participation in physical activities and establishes a foundation to facilitate continued motor skill acquisition and increased ability to engage in appropriate motor patterns in daily physical activities. The development of proficiency in a few movement forms gives the student the capacity for successful and advanced levels of performance to further increase the likelihood of participation. In the primary years students develop maturity and versatility in the use of fundamental skills (e.g., running, skipping, throwing, striking) that are further refined, combined and varied during the middle school years. These motor patterns, now having evolved into specialized skills (e.g., a specific dance step, chest pass, catching with a glove) are used in increasingly more complex movement environments (e.g., more players or participants, rules, and strategies) through the middle school years.

 

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. The teacher candidate will learn manipulative, locomotion, non-locomotion, perceptual skills and fundamental game skills.

a. Perform locomotor, non-locomotor, perceptual skills and fundamental game skills.

• Practical exam

• Perform a one handed catch of a ball.

2. The teacher candidate will establish a foundation to learn motor skills needed in daily physical activity.

b. Perform running, skipping, throwing and striking skills

• Observation and physical test

• Use and explain the skill of skipping properly.

3. The teacher candidate will develop sufficient skills so that physical activity can be enjoyed.

 

c. Use safety skills and locomotive and non-locomotive skills at a level that will produce success and enjoyment.

• Written and physical test

• Use a playground slide safely.

 

Standard 2: Applies movement concepts and principles to learning and development of motor skills -- This standard concerns the ability of the learner to use cognitive information to understand and enhance motor skill acquisition and performance. This includes the application of concepts from disciplines such as motor learning and development, sport psychology and sociology, bio-mechanics, and exercise physiology. Specifically this would include concepts like increasing force production through the summation of forces, effects of anxiety on performance, and the principle of specificity of training. Knowledge of such concepts and practice applying these concepts enhances the likelihood of independent learning and therefore more regular and effective participation in physical activity. During the lower elementary years emphasis is placed on establishing a movement vocabulary and initial application of introductory concepts (e.g., force absorption, principles governing equilibrium, application of force). Through the upper elementary and middle school years an emphasis is placed on learning more and increasingly complex concepts. In addition, emphasis is placed on applying and generalizing these concepts to real-life physical activity situations (e.g., managing stress, effect of growth spurt on movement performance).

 

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. The candidate will know and understand the stages of growth and development, and apply these to appropriate motor skill development.

a. Choose and explain a locomotor skill that is appropriate for the stage of child development.

• Short constructed responses

• At what age should a student be able to skip?

2. The candidate will be able to apply knowledge learned about motor learning, exercise physiology and sports psychology to developing motor skills.

b. Explain how summation of forces, anxiety of performance and principles of training affect the learning of motor skills.

c. Throw, catch, strike, dribble and kick a ball.

•Extended constructed responses

• Sample: When bouncing a ball against a wall what movement concepts are needed to be successful?

3. The candidate will develop a vocabulary of terms and concepts relevant to developing motor skills.

 

 

d. Competently use terms and concepts important to the understanding and learning of motor skills.

•Performance assessments.

• Explain the difference in striking a stationary ball and moving ball.

 

Standard 3: Exhibits a physically active lifestyle. -- The intent of this standard is to establish patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity. This standard is to establish patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity. This standard should connect what is done in the physical education class with the lives of students outside of physical education. While participation within the physical education class is important, what the student does outside the physical education class is critical to developing an active, healthy lifestyle. Students are more likely to participate if they have had opportunities to develop interests that are personally meaningful to them. Young children should learn to enjoy physical activity. They should participate in developmentally appropriate activities that help them develop movement competence and they should be encouraged to participate in vigorous and unstructured play. As students get older the structure of activity tends to increase and the opportunities for participation in different types of activity increase outside of the physical education class. Attainment of this standard should develop an awareness of those opportunities and encourage a broad level of participation. Cognitive understandings develop from an initial awareness of cause and effect relationships between activity and its immediate and identifiable effects on the body to an increased understanding of the role of physical activity on the physiological body, social opportunities and relationships, and emotional well being; and a comprehensive perspective on the meaning of the idea of a healthy lifestyle

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. The teacher candidate participates in several physical activities and develops an acceptable level of fitness.

a. Regular participation in physical activities.

•Short and extended responses

• Give an example of an activity you participate in, giving the frequency, intensity and time involved in that activity.

2. The teacher candidate will be able to relate what is being done in the classroom to the activities the community has to offer.

b. Explain how classroom activity is directly related to play and recreational activity.

•Journals

• How does learning a forward and backward roll help you enjoy recreational soccer?

3. The teacher candidate will understand the components of fitness and how they relate to healthy living.

c. Explain the relationship between exercise and personal health.

d. Successfully complete a national fitness test assessment.

• Physical performance test.

• How does aerobic exercise (running) affect the immune system?

 

Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness -- The intent of this standard is for the student to achieve a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. Students should be encouraged to develop higher levels of basic fitness and physical competence as needed for many work situations and active leisure participation. Health-related fitness components include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Expectation for students’ fitness levels should be established on a personal basis, taking into account variation in entry levels, rather than setting a single standards for all children at a given grade level. For elementary children, the emphasis is on an awareness of fitness components and having fun while participating in health-enhancing activities that promote physical fitness. Middle school students gradually acquire a greater understanding of the fitness components, how each is developed and maintained, and the importance of each in overall fitness.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. The teacher candidate is expected to participate in resistance training and moderate aerobic activities on a regular basis.

a. Participation for (a minimum of) 3 days a week in a combination of strength training and cardiorespiratory activities.

• Nationally recognized fitness tests and standards to show level of physical fitness.

• Cooper=s 12 minute walk/run test.

• Cardiorespiratory endurance.

• Choice of Cooper=s 12 minute assessments.

2. The teacher candidate should know the concepts of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, strength, flexibility and body composition and how these concepts affect his health and fitness level.

b. Name the health related components of physical fitness and how his activity level affect them.

•Short and extended responses.

• How does rope jumping activity affect body composition?

3. The teacher candidate should know the variation in levels of physical fitness and how to assess change in that level.

c. Recognize different levels of physical fitness.

d. Know how to cause and identify change in physical fitness levels.

• Observation.

•Performance assessment

• Candidate will analyze a fitness test as to what it tells us and how variation in the results affects our health.

 

Standard 5: Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings -- The intent of this standard is achievement of self-initiated behaviors that promote personal and group success in activity settings. These include safe practices, adherence to rules and procedures, etiquette, cooperation and teamwork, ethical behavior in sport, ad positive social interaction. Achievement of this standard in the lower elementary grades begins with recognition of classroom rules and procedures and a focus on safety. In the upper elementary levels, students learn to work independently, with a partner, and in small groups. In the upper elementary levels, students learn to work independently, with a partner, and in small groups. In the middle school, students identify the purposes for rules and procedures and become involved in decision- making processes to establish rules and procedures for specific activity situations.

 

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidate will establish rules, maintain sportsmanship conduct and discipline in physically active games or individual games.

a. Conduct themselves in a socially acceptable way under the stress of physical activity or game.

• Candidate participates in game, following established rules and regulations.

•Performance assessment

• Engage in the game of Duck, duck, goose.

2. The teacher candidate will use responsible personal and social behavior in a physical activity setting.

b. Recognize acceptable and unacceptable behavior in themselves as well as others.

c. Abide by the rules of a game without frustration.

• Observation and field work with children.

• Role playing.

• Candidates will role play both acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.

 

 

Standard 6: Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings. -- The intent of this standard is to develop respect for individual similarities and differences through positive interaction among participants in physical activity. Similarities and differences include characteristics of culture, ethnicity, motor performance, disabilities, physical characteristics (e.g., strength, size shape), gender, race a and socio-economic status. Elementary school students begin to recognize individual similarities and differences and participate cooperatively in physical activity. By middle school students participate cooperatively in physical activity with persons of diverse characteristics and backgrounds.

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. Teacher candidate will design and implement learning experiences that will take into account individual differences, such as: strengths, weaknesses, needs and learning styles.

a. Will be able to select a physical activity or skill and explain what adjustments may be made for individual difference, such as: disability, strength, size, gender, etc.

• Role playing.

• Observation.

• Field work

• Written exam.

• Short and extended responses

• In the game of basketball, what adjustments would you make for gender differences and what would be similar?

 

Standard 7: Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction. -- This standard is designed to develop an awareness of the intrinsic values and benefits of participation in physical activity that provides personal meaning. Physical activity can provide opportunity for self-expression and social interaction and can be enjoyable, challenging, and fun. These benefits entice people to continue participation in activity through the life span. Elementary school children derive pleasure from movement sensations and experience challenge and joy as they sense a growing competence in movement ability. At the middle school level participation in physical activity provides important opportunities for challenge, social interaction, and group membership, as well as opportunities for continued personal growth in physical skills and their applied settings.

 

Outcomes

Indicators

Assessment Type

Sample Assessment Task

1. The teacher candidate will know and understand the components and benefits of physical fitness.

a. List and explain the components and several benefits of physical fitness as they relate to the student.

• Short and extended responses

• List the five health components of physical fitness.

2. The teacher candidate will differentiate among the terms exercise, play, game and sport.

b. Explain the difference between exercise, play, game and sport.

• Perform a demonstration

• Discuss the similarities and differences in the term sport and game.

3. The teacher candidate support and encourage learning to express feeling through movement.

c. Express several feelings through movements.

• Role playing.

• Use movement to express a feeling of being free.

4. The teacher candidate will understand the benefits derived from physical activity and its relationship to social interaction.

d. Select a physical activity and explain the social benefits of that activity.

 

• List the social benefits derived from being able to play golf?