Language Arts

Standard

Pre-service teachers demonstrate a high level of competence in use of the English language arts and they know, understand and use concepts from reading, language and child development, to teach reading, writing, speaking, viewing, listening, and thinking skills and to help students successfully apply their developing skills to many different situations, materials, and ideas. (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education [NCATE] standard 2b).

Standards for a "C" Paper:

All written and/or oral products must meet the minimum language proficiencies as determined by the Statewide English Discipline Group’s "Standards for C Paper" and the Statewide Speech Communications Group’s "Standards for General Education Speech Communication Courses." (See Appendices A and B for standards.)

Foreword

Objectives in English language arts were developed using NCATE’s supporting explanation for the English language arts standard:

Candidates are adept at teaching the fundamentals of the English Language Arts. They model effective use of English, including its syntax, lexicon, history, varieties, literature, and oral and written composing processes. Candidates understand how elementary children develop and learn to read, write, speak, view, and listen effectively. They use their knowledge and understanding of language, first and second language development, and the language arts to design instructional programs and strategies that build on students' experiences and existing language skills and result in their students becoming competent, effective users of language. (p. 20)

This explanation delineates the standard into three fundamental objectives: 1. modeling/knowledge of English, 2. understanding how children develop the language, and 3. using the knowledge and understanding of English language arts to design instructional programs. Each objective exhibits specific general outcomes. It is this committee’s consensus that the first level (modeling/knowledge) can be achieved in the first sixty hours, and the second level (understanding) can be addressed in part. Likewise, some of the outcomes addressed in the second level (understanding) and all of the third level (use) may be more appropriately addressed in the second sixty hours. Additionally, in accordance with the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Program Review Standards, the committee agrees that pre-service teachers need to participate throughout the entire teacher education program in a sequence of field experiences in elementary level classrooms with certified/licensed, experienced teachers and university/college supervisors. These early field placement experiences provide opportunities for exploration and reflection about teaching as a career (p. 413)

In summary, pre-service teachers need to acquire first, the content knowledge and then, some understanding of the educational processes during their first sixty hours of instruction

The outcomes, found in the first column, and the indicators, derived from the outcomes and found in the second column, are taken directly from the NCATE Program Standards prepared by NCTE. Evidence for each of the indicators should be seen in course work, performance data and/or experiences, all of which can be documented. The third column provides types of assessment that may be used to measure the indicators while the fourth column provides specific examples of assessment tasks to be used for the particular indicators. Using the list of assessment types, other assessment tasks may be developed to measure the indicators.

 

Source documents for the Objectives and Indicators include the following:

Guidelines for the Preparation of Teachers of English Language Arts, National Council of Teachers of English, 1996 edition.

Maryland’s Standards for Instructional Content in English Language Arts, K-12, Maryland State Department of Education, 1999.

Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Catherine E. Snow, M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin, editors; National Research Council, 1998.

Program for Initial Preparation of Teachers of English Language Arts for Middle/Junior High and Senior High School Teaching, National Council of Teachers of English, 1998.

Final Report of the Reading Professional Development Committee, Maryland State Department of Education, 1999.

Program Standards for Elementary Teacher Preparation, National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2000

Standards for the English Language Arts, National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association, 1996.

Standards for Reading Professionals, International Reading Association, 1998.

 

Objective 1: Model the Appropriate Attitudes and Knowledge for Effective Use of English Language

Outcome

Indicators

Assessment Types*

Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Develop a knowledge and understanding of the English language.

a. Discuss and give examples of how reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and thinking are interrelated.

b. Recognize the impact of cultural, economic, political, and social environments upon language.

c. Recognize and respect diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups,

geographic regions, and social roles.

 

!Oral, visual, and written products of the following nature:

Critical Analysis

Standardized Test

Restricted Response

Portfolio

Reflections on Observation

Multimedia Application

Journal

Essay

Discussion

!Document the variations of language uses between people of different cultural and/or economic backgrounds.

!Edit a written document for language usage and grammar.

 

 

 

!Write a well-constructed grammatically correct college level essay.

 

d. Use correct English grammar.

e. Use correct semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.

f. Explain the various purposes for which language is used.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Teacher candidates will develop the ability to speak and write as a professional educator.

g. Identify and discuss the influence of language and visual images on thinking and composing.

h. Use writing, speaking and observing as major forms of inquiry, reflection, and expression.

i. Use the processes of composing to create various forms of oral, visual, and written literacy.

j. Use writing, visual images, and speaking for a variety of purposes and audiences.

k. Apply knowledge of language structure and conventions to creating and critiquing print and non-print texts.

l. Apply knowledge of information literacy to the writing and speaking task.

!Oral, visual, and written products of the following nature:

Critical Analysis

Selected Response

Restricted Response

Portfolio

Demonstration

Observation

Reflections on Observation

Multimedia Application

Journal

Interview

Documented essay

Discussion

Presentation

Role Pay

PRAXIS I

!Create and deliver a speech to inform or persuade.

!Critique the effectiveness of communication among members of your workgroup.

!Prevent a report on your Science/Math/

American Studies, etc. research project.

!Create and deliver a welcoming address for "Back-to-School Night."

3. Teacher candidates will develop an effective application of the reading process.

m. Interpret what is read and respond through different modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile).

n. Discover and create meaning from texts.

o. Use a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts.

!Oral, visual, and written products of the following nature:

Critical Analysis

Standardized Test

Selected Response

Restricted Response

Multimedia Application

Journal

Essay

 

!Write a critical essay in response to a piece of literature.

!Use reciprocal reading in-groups.

!What specific information related to gene structure and function can be found in the (assigned) article on the Genome Project, and that was not previously discussed in class.

4. Teacher candidates will develop an effective application of the writing process, pre-service teachers will be able to perform the following indicators:

p. Use a wide range of writing strategies to generate meaning and to clarify understanding.

q. Produce different forms

of written discourse.

r. Explain how written discourse can influence thought and action.

!Oral, visual, and written products of the following nature:

Critical Analysis

Standardized Test

Selected Response

Restricted Response

Portfolio

Reflection

Demonstration

Observation

Reflection on a Observation

Multimedia Application

Journal

Interview

Essay

!Write a compare/contrast paper addressed to a particular audience.

Objective 2: Understand how elementary children develop and learn to read, write, speak, and listen effectively.

Outcome

Indicators

Assessment Types*

Sample Assessment Tasks

1. Teacher candidates will develop a knowledge and understanding of child development and language acquisition.

a. Understand and discuss brain research (historical and current) as it relates to reading.

b. Define and discuss understanding of language acquisition and development, including semantics, syntax, morphology and phonology.

c. Understand and differentiate the effects of phonemic awareness and phonics on developing readers and writers.

d. Recognize and understand the interactive nature of the reading process.

e. Recognize and understand the impact of cultural, economic, political, and social environments upon language use, patterns, and dialects

f. Reflect how children integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and thinking processes to learn within a classroom setting.

g. Reflect on the use of a wide range of strategies used in reading and writing lessons in an elementary classroom.

!Oral, visual, and written products of the following nature:

Critical Analysis

Standardized Test

Selected Response

Restricted Response

Portfolio

Reflection

Demonstrations

Analysis of Children’s Work Samples

Reflection on a Observation

Multimedia Application

Journal

Interview

Essay

Discussion

 

!Describe and chart the essential stages of growth and development of a child’s brain.

!Research and report on the work of major theorists in language acquisition (for example Piaget, Vygotsky, Bloom, etc.).

!Analyze an authentic piece of child’s dialogue to explore use of semantics and syntax.